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PhD Eng. Nikolay Milev, Eng. Juan José Briones Contreras

The first part of the report presents the members of the team, the places visited, the different types of research and the main goals of the research. The geological and topographic features of the visited areas are considered: banked ground, Idil collapse, Islahiye and Tepehan landslides and the fault in two locations - Chigli and Islahiye, and the damage caused by the earthquake are described. Particular attention is paid to the coastal city of Iskenderun (in part 1) and the city of Golbasi (in part 2), where a number of significant damages were revealed due to the influence of the ground base and the natural frequency of the soil massive was determined. The second part analyzes the reasons for the completely destroyed buildings in the cities of Antakya and Kahramanmarash.


liquefaction, earthquake, geotechnics, soil dynamics, Turkey


1. Middle East Technical University. Preliminary Reconnaissance Report on February 6, 2023, Pazarcık Mw=7.7 and Elbistan Mw=7.6, Kahramanmaraş-Türkiye Earthquakes February 20, 2023.
2. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Association. “February 6, 2023 Türkiye Earth-quakes: Report on Geoscience and Engineering Impacts”. images/2023_02_06_nurdagi_turkey/GEER_2023_Turkey_Earthquake_FullReport_ReducedSize.pdf
3. Уеб семинари, организирани от Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
4. Turkey Accelerometric Database and Analysis System (TADAS) –
5. Rojay, Bora, Ariel Heimann & Vedat Toprak (2001). Neotectonic and volcanic characteristics of the Karasu fault zone (Anatolia, Turkey): The transition zone between the Dead Sea transform and the East Anatolian fault zone, Geodinamica Acta, 14:1-3, 197-212, DOI: 10.1080/09853111.2001.11432444.
6. Özşahin, E. (2010). Antakya’da hatay yer seçiminin jeomorfolojik özellikler ve doğal risk açisindan değerlendirilmesİ. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 13 (23) , 1-16 . Retrieved from
7. Özmen, Özgür Tuna et al. Microtremor Array Measurements for ShallowS-Wave Profiles at Strong-Motion Stations in Hatay and Kahramanmaras Provinces, Southern Turkey. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2017),107(1): 445.
8. Ermini, L., Casagli, N., 2002. Criteria for a preliminary assessment of landslide dam evolution. In: Rybar, J., Stemberk, J., Wagner, P. (Eds.), Landslides. Proceedings 1st European Conference on Landslides 24–26 June 2002. Balkema, Prague, pp. 157–162.
9. Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M. (1971) Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Potential. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE 97, SM9, 1249-1273.
10. Idriss, I. M., and Boulanger, R. W. (2010). „SPT-based liquefaction triggering procedures.“ Report UCD/CGM-10/02, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cal Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential
11. Boulanger, R.W., and Idriss, I.M., (2014). CPT and SPT based liquefaction triggering procedures. Report No.UCD/CGM-14/01, Centre for Geotechnical Modelling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, 2 pp.
12. Kayen, Robert & Moss, R. & Thompson, Eric & Seed, Raymond & Cetin, Kemal & Der Kiureghian, Armen & Tanaka, Yasuo & Tokimatsu, Kohji. (2013). J.29 Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 139. 407-419. 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000743.
13. Wu J, Seed RB, Pestana JM (2003). Liquefaction triggering and post liquefaction deformations of Monterey 0/30 sand under uni-directional cyclic simple shear loading. Geotechnical Engineering Research report no. UCB/GE-2003/01, University of California, Berkeley, CA

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